Saturday, 19 July 2014

Well-being: How sugar affects our brain ?


Image: hypescience.com
                                                                      





                      How sugar
                affects our brain?

    See the answer in the video below:

Refined sugar increases blood sugar levels, and inhibits the production of BDNF (Brain-derived neurotrophic factor), which is one of the most important proteins that maintain human wellness (Morrone, 2012).

BDNF is produced by the hippocampus while we are sleeping and it is essential for growing, learning and change processes called neural plasticity (brain ability to make new connections) and neurogenesis (brain production of neurons) (Morrone, 2012). 

BDNF also helps to decrease the effects of excessive cortisol produced during the stress response, reduce appetite, increase memory ability, it is important for long term memory, and protect the nervous system against injury and disease (Henson & Rossouw, 2013).

When sugar intake inhibits the production of BDNF, our brain become more rigid, as the ability to produce neurons (neurogenesis) and make connections among them (neuro plasticity) decrease (Henson & Rossouw, 2013).

Regular exercises, regular quality sleep, limiting intake of caffeine, alcohol, refined sugar and unsaturated fats and omega-3 fatty acids, increases the production of BDNF (Henson & Rossouw, 2013).

Other consequences of too much sugar are: Cavities, insatiable hunger, weight gain, insulin resistance, diabetes, obesity, liver failure, pancreatic cancer, kidney disease, high blood pressure, heart disease, addiction, cognitive decline, nutritional deficiencies.

Challem (2007) argue that what we eat affects not only our brain activity and physical body, but our mood and behaviour. Although our brain needs an amount of sugar to produce energy (only about six teas poons of sugar per day), if we eat a lot of sugar, our blood sugar rises more then it should, and our body and brain gets inundated by sugar. The result is that we will feel restful, lazy and wanting to sleep (Challem, 2007).

On the other hand, if we do not eat when we feel hungry, our blood sugar falls down, causing the opposite effect (Challem, 2007). Our brain reduces its activity and we become tired, weak, irritable and impatient (Challem, 2007).

If you are hungry but far from home and unable to eat healthy food, do not buy a soft drink or a lolly, but, instead, buy an unsalted snack, cheese, meat or eggs. It will make your blood sugar stabilise (Challem, 2007).

If you are stressed, you need even more healthy food, with proteins, vitamins and minerals.

The effects of bad eating habits can just be seeing in long term, however, the first signs of malnutrition are mood and behaviour changes (Challem, 2007).

Our brain neurotransmitters depend of the amount of vitamins, minerals, proteins, and small carbohydrates we consume (Challem, 2007). Moreover, our feelings, thoughts and experience also influence our brain and mood, affecting our reflexes and behaviour (Challem, 2007).

Sweet foods, irregular sleeping habits and late dinners, leads to a low level of blood sugar making it more difficult to wake up in the morning. Many people feel like they need a coffee to be alert in the morning, which will cause even more problems (Challem, 2007).

Too much caffeine, sugar, low intake of vitamins, minerals and proteins causes restlessness and anxiety (Challem, 2007).

The media then will find easy to exploit weak and anxious people by influencing them to buy their products or ideas advertised on TV(Challem, 2007). Through the marketing strategy called FUD, which is based on the concept that creating fear, uncertainty and doubt (FUD), the population will buy products or ideas because something bad may happen if they do not buy it. In other words, malnourished people may be easily manipulated psychologically (Challem, 2007).












Mrs Glaucia Barbosa,
PACFA Reg. Provisional 25212 
MCouns, MQCA(Clinical)  

ABN: 19 476 932 954

References:
American Journal of Alzheimer’s, 2009; Journal of Gerontology, 2010; Behavioural Neuroscience, 2011; Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care, 2013; Nutrition Journal, 2013; Behavioural Neuroscience, 2013

American Journal of Physiology, 2008; American Journal of Physiology, 2009; British Journal of Nutrition, 2011; Advances in Nutrition, 2012

American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2004; JAMA, 2004; International Journal of Obesity, 2006; Obesity Reviews, 2013

British Medical Journal, 2008; Advances in
          Chronic Kidney Disease, 2012

British Medical Journal, 2013; American
          Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2013

Challem, Jack. (2007). Health-AARP. New
          Jersey, Canada: Jhon Wiley & Sons.

Family Economics and Nutrition Review, 1999; Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 1998; Circulation, 2002; American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2003

Hypertension, 2001; American Journal of Physiology, 2008; Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, 2010; Hypertension, 2012; Hypertension, 2012

Henson,C. & Rossouw, P. (2013).Brainwise
          leadership. Sydney, Australia: Learning
          Quest.

JAMA, 2004; Diabetes Care, 2010; PLOS
          ONE, 2013

Journal of the American Dental Association, 2009; ISRN Dentistry, 2013; International Dental Journal, 2013

Journal of Hepatology, 2007; Journal of
          Hepatology, 2008; World Journal of
          Gastroenterology, 2013

Journal of Hypertension, 2008; American Journal of Cardiology, 2012; JAMA Internal Medicine, 2014

Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 2002; The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2006; Annals of Oncology, 2012; International Journal of Cancer, 2012; Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity, 2012

Morrone, L. (2012). Sleep well again-Fall asleep quickly-Stay asleep longer-Wake up refreshed. Oregon: harvest House Publishers.

Obesity, 2002; Behavioural Neuroscience, 2005; Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 2007; Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 2008; Appetite, 2011

PLOS ONE, 2008; Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, 2010; Renal Physiology, 2011; Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease, 2013

The American Journal of Cardiology, 1999; American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2002; Nutrition & Metabolism, 2005







  

               
                 Como o açúcar
               afeta nosso cérebro?

       Veja a resposta no video abaixo:

Açúcar refinado aumenta os níveis de açúcar no sangue, e inibe a produção de BDNF (factor neurotrófico derivado do cérebro), que é uma das proteínas mais importantes que mantêm o bem-estar humano (Morrone, 2012).

BDNF é produzido pelo hipocampo enquanto estamos dormindo e é essencial para o crescimento, os processos de aprendizagem e mudança chamados plasticidade neural (capacidade do cérebro de fazer novas conexões) e neurogênese (produção de neurônios do cérebro) (Morrone, 2012).

BDNF também ajuda a diminuir os efeitos do cortisol excessivo produzido durante a resposta ao estresse, redução do apetite, aumento da capacidade de memória, é importante para a memória de longo prazo, e protege o sistema nervoso contra ferimentos e doenças (Henson & Ros, 2013).

Quando a ingestão de açúcar inibe a produção de BDNF, o nosso cérebro tornam-se mais rígido, pois a capacidade de produzir neurônios (neurogenisis) e fazer conexões entre eles (plasticidade neuro) reduz (Henson & Ros, 2013).

Exercícios regulares, sono de qualidade regular, limitar ingestão de cafeína, álcool, açúcar refinado e gorduras insaturadas e ômega-3 ácidos graxos, aumenta a produção de BDNF (Henson & Ros, 2013).

Outras conseqüências do excesso de açúcar são: cáries, fome insaciável, ganho de peso, resistência à insulina, diabetes, obesidade, insuficiência hepática, câncer de pâncreas, doença renal, pressão arterial alta, doença cardíaca, vício, declínio cognitivo, deficiências nutricionais.

Challem (2007) argumenta que o que comemos afeta não só a nossa atividade cerebral e física, como também nosso humor e comportamento. Embora o nosso cérebro precisa de uma quantidade de açúcar para produzir energia (apenas cerca de seis colheres de chá de açúcar por dia), se comemos muito açúcar, nosso açúcar no sangue sobe mais do que deveria, e nosso corpo e cérebro ficam inundados por açúcar. O resultado é que vamos nos sentir lentos, preguiçosos e querer dormir (Challem, 2007).

Por outro lado, se não comemos quando sentimos fome, o açúcar no nosso sangue cai, causando o efeito oposto (Challem, 2007). Nosso cérebro reduz a sua actividade e nos tornamos cansados, fracos, irritados e impacientes (Challem, 2007).

Se você estiver com fome, mas longe de casa e incapaz de comer alimentos saudáveis​​, não compre um refrigerante ou um doce, mas, em vez disso, compre um lanche sem sal, queijo, carne ou ovos. Isso fará com que o açúcar no seu sangue se estabilize (Challem, 2007).

Se você está estressado, você precisa ainda mais ingerir alimentos saudáveis, com proteínas, vitaminas e minerais.

Os efeitos de maus hábitos alimentares só podem ser vistos a longo prazo, no entanto, os primeiros sinais de desnutrição podem ser vistos nas mudanças de humor e de comportamento (Challem, 2007).

Nossos neurotransmissores cerebrais dependem da quantidade de vitaminas, minerais, proteínas, hidratos de carbono que consumimos (Challem, 2007). Além disso, os nossos sentimentos, pensamentos e experiência também influenciam o nosso cérebro e humor, afetando nossos reflexos e comportamento (Challem, 2007).

Os alimentos doces, hábitos de sono irregulares e jantares tardios, levam a um baixo nível de açúcar no sangue, tornando mais difícil para acordar pela manhã. Muitas pessoas sentem que precisam de um café para estar alerta na parte da manhã, o que causará ainda mais problemas (Challem, 2007).

Excesso de cafeína, açúcar, baixa ingestão de vitaminas, minerais e proteínas provocam inquietação e ansiedade (Challem, 2007).

Diante deste quadro, os meios de comunicação vão facilmente explorar as pessoas ansiosas, influenciando-as a comprar seus produtos ou idéias anunciados na TV (Challem, 2007). Através da estratégia de marketing chamada FUD, que é baseada no conceito de que criando medo, incerteza e dúvida (FUD), a população vai comprar produtos ou idéias, porque teme que algo de ruim pode acontecer com elas se elas não comprem. Em outras palavras, as pessoas desnutridas podem ser facilmente manipuladas psicologicamente (Challem, 2007).

Mrs Glaucia Barbosa,
PACFA Reg. Provisional 25212 
MCouns, MQCA(Clinical)  
 
ABN: 19 476 932 954
References: 
American Journal of Alzheimer’s, 2009; Journal of Gerontology, 2010; Behavioural Neuroscience, 2011; Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care, 2013; Nutrition Journal, 2013; Behavioural Neuroscience, 2013

American Journal of Physiology, 2008; American Journal of Physiology, 2009; British Journal of Nutrition, 2011; Advances in Nutrition, 2012

American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2004; JAMA, 2004; International Journal of Obesity, 2006; Obesity Reviews, 2013

British Medical Journal, 2008; Advances in
          Chronic Kidney Disease, 2012

British Medical Journal, 2013; American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2013

Challem, Jack. (2007). Health-AARP. New
          Jersey, Canada: Jhon Wiley & Sons.

Family Economics and Nutrition Review, 1999; Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 1998; Circulation, 2002; American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2003

Hypertension, 2001; American Journal of Physiology, 2008; Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, 2010; Hypertension, 2012; Hypertension, 2012

Henson,C. & Rossouw, P. (2013). Brainwise
          leadership. Sydney, Australia: Learning
          Quest.

JAMA, 2004; Diabetes Care, 2010; PLOS
          ONE, 2013

Journal of the American Dental Association, 2009; ISRN Dentistry, 2013; International Dental Journal, 2013

Journal of Hepatology, 2007; Journal of
          Hepatology, 2008; World Journal of
          Gastroenterology, 2013

Journal of Hypertension, 2008; American Journal of Cardiology, 2012; JAMA Internal Medicine, 2014

Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 2002; The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2006; Annals of Oncology, 2012; International Journal of Cancer, 2012; Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity, 2012

Morrone, L. (2012). Sleep well again-Fall asleep quickly-Stay asleep longer-Wake up refreshed. Oregon: harvest House Publishers.

Obesity, 2002; Behavioural Neuroscience, 2005; Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 2007; Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 2008; Appetite, 2011

PLOS ONE, 2008; Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, 2010; Renal Physiology, 2011; Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease, 2013

The American Journal of Cardiology, 1999; American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2002; Nutrition & Metabolism, 2005













                                   



                                                     




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