Thursday, 20 November 2014

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)



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    1. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a disorder described by the presence of intrusive thoughts, obsessions and behaviours compulsively performed in order to reduce the anxiety caused by the intrusive thoughts (Hyman & Pedrick, 2010).
    1. In the DSM-V the diagnostic criteria for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder it is established as follows:

    2. Diagnostic Criteria

300.3(F42)
  1. Presence of obsessions, compulsions, or both:
    • Obsessions are defined by (1) and (2):
    • Recurrent and persistent thoughts, urges, or images that are experienced, at some time during the disturbance, as intrusive and unwanted, and that in most individuals cause marked anxiety or distress.
    • The individual attempts to ignore or suppress such thoughts, urges, or images, or to neutralize them with some other thought or action (i.e., by performing a compulsion).
    • Compulsions are defined by (1) and (2):
    • Repetitive behaviors (e.g., hand washing, ordering, checking) or mental acts (e.g., praying, counting, repeating words silently) that the individual feels driven to perform in response to an obsession or according to rules that must be applied rigidly.
    • The behaviors or mental acts are aimed at preventing or reducing anxiety or distress, or preventing some dreaded event or situation; however, these behaviors or mental acts are not connected in a realistic way with what they are designed to neutralize or prevent, or are clearly excessive.
      • Note: Young children may not be able to articulate the aims of these behaviors or mental acts.
2. The obsessions or compulsions are time-consuming (e.g.,
take more than 1 hour per day) or cause clinically significant
distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other
important areas of functioning.

3. The obsessive-compulsive symptoms are not attributable to
the physiological effects of a substance (e.g., a drug of
abuse, a medication) or another medical condition.

4. The disturbance is not better explained by the symptoms of
another mental disorder (e.g., excessive worries, as in
generalized anxiety disorder; preoccupation with
appearance, as in body dysmorphic disorder; difficulty
discarding or parting with possessions, as in hoarding
disorder; hair pulling, as in trichotillomania [hair-pulling
disorder]; skin picking, as in excoriation [skin-picking]
disorder; stereotypies, as in stereotypic movement disorder;
ritualized eating behavior, as in eating disorders;
preoccupation with substances or gambling, as in
substance-related and addictive disorders; preoccupation
with having an illness, as in illness anxiety disorder; sexual
urges or fantasies, as in paraphilic disorders; impulses, as in
disruptive, impulse-control, and conduct disorders; guilty
ruminations, as in major depressive disorder; thought
insertion or delusional preoccupations, as in schizophrenia
spectrum and other psychotic disorders; or repetitive patterns
of behavior, as in autism spectrum disorder).

Specify if:
  • With good or fair insight: The individual recognizes that obsessive-compulsive disorder beliefs are definitely or probably not true or that they may or may not be true.
  • With poor insight: The individual thinks obsessive-compulsive disorder beliefs are probably true.
  • With absent insight/delusional beliefs: The individual is completely convinced that obsessive-compulsive disorder beliefs are true.
    Specify if:
  • Tic-related: The individual has a current or past history of a tic disorder (First, 2014, 309.81- F43.10).


Mrs Glaucia Barbosa,
PACFA Reg. Provisional 25212 
MCouns, MQCA(Clinical)  
 
ABN: 19 476 932 954
References
First, M. B. (2014). DSM-5 handbook of differential diagnosis. Trauma- and Stressor-Related Disorders, (309.81-F43.10). Arlington, Va: American Psychiatric Publishing. DOI: 10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596.991543
 
Hyman, B.M., & Pedrick, Cherry. (2010). The OCD Workbook -Your Guide to Breaking Free from Obsessive Compulsive Disorder. Oakland-Canada: New Harbinger Publications, Inc.





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