Friday, 27 June 2014

Homesick/Immigration: Effects of immigration on individuals


Image: professorbrunobarros.blogspot
                                                      




             Effects of immigration
                  on individuals


The effects of immigration on individuals start before they leave their country of origin, with “pre-migration stressors” (Jamil, Nassar-McMillanb, Lambert, Wangd, Ager, & Arnetz, 2010), that are related to the expectations of leaving (Akhatar, 2011).

In the case of refugees, who have experienced strong negative events such as torture or war related trauma in their country of origin, this may constitute “pre-migration trauma” (Robjant, Robbins, & Senior, 2009).

There is also a feeling of “anticipatory grief” (Akhatar, 2011) for leaving their country and relatives (Akhatar, 2011).


When arriving in the new country, the immigrants face the “post-migration stressors”(Jamil, Nassar-McMillanb, Lambert, Wangd, Ager, & Arnetz, 2010), as a result of displacement, cultural shock, loss of identity, children's lack of adaptation, lack of language proficiency, lack of a support network , difficulties in finding a suitable job or recognition of professional degrees (Akhatar, 2011).

These work barriers lead people to seek positions outside their area of expertise, or accept jobs at a lower level than what they had in their country of origin, which may lower people's self-esteem and cause depression (Akhatar, 2011).

High levels of stress, anxiety, depression, or even development of psychopathology may accompany this stage (Robjant, Robbins, & Senior, 2009).

Studies show that among the refugee population, “post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)”(Robjant, Robbins, & Senior, 2009), “self-harm” (Robjant, Robbins, & Senior, 2009) or “suicide ideation” (Robjant, Robbins, & Senior, 2009) are not uncommon (Robjant, Robbins, & Senior, 2009).





Mrs Glaucia Barbosa,
PACFA Reg. Provisional 25212 
MCouns, MQCA(Clinical)  
ABN: 19 476 932 954


References

Akhtar, S. (2011). Immigration and acculturation. Mourning, adaptation, and the next generation. Maryland,UK: Jason Avonson.

Jamil, H., Nassar-McMillanb, S., Lambert, R., Wangd, Y., Ager, J., & Arnetz, B. (2010). Pre- and postdisplacement stressors and time of migration as related to self-rated health among Iraqi immigrants and refugees in south-east Michigan. Medicine, Conflict, and Survival, 26(3), 207- 222. doi:10.1080/13623699.2010.513655

Robjant, K., Robbins, I., & Senior, V. (2009). Psychological distress amongst immigration detainees: A crosssectional questionnaire study. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 48(3), 275-286.
doi:10.1348/014466508X397007






          Efeitos da imigração sobre
                   os indivíduos


Os efeitos da imigração sobre os indivíduos começam antes deles deixarem seu país de origem, com o estress vivenciado antes da imigração. O “stress pré-imigração” (Jamil, Nassar-McMillanb, Lambert, Wangd, Ager, e Arnetz de 2010), está relacionado com a expectativa da mudanca (Akhatar de 2011).

No caso dos refugiados, que sofreram fortes eventos negativos, como tortura ou trauma relacionados a guerra em seu país de origem, pode-se dar o nome de "trauma de pré-imigração" (Robjant, Robbins, e Senior, 2009).

Há também um sentimento de "luto antecipatório" (Akhatar, 2011) por se separar do país e de familiares (Akhatar, 2011).

Ao chegam no novo país, os imigrantes enfrentam os "fatores de stress pós-imigração" (Jamil, Nassar-McMillanb, Lambert, Wangd, Ager, e Arnetz de 2010), como resultado da mudanca, choque cultural, perda de identidade, falta de adaptação das crianças, falta de proficiência na língua, falta de apoio de amigos, dificuldade em encontrar o emprego desejado ou dificuldade para reconhecer a graduação profissional (Akhatar 2011).

Estas barreiras relacionadas a trabalho levam as pessoas a buscar empregos fora de sua área de especialização ou aceitar empregos com nível abaixo do que eles tinham em seu país de origem, o que pode diminuir a auto-estima das pessoas e causar depressão (Akhatar de 2011).

Altos níveis de estresse, ansiedade, depressão ou até mesmo o desenvolvimento de psicopatologia podem acompanhar essa fase (Robjant, Robbins, e Senior, 2009).


Estudos mostram que entre a população de refugiados, "transtorno de estresse pós-traumático (PTSD)" (Robjant, Robbins, e Senior, 2009), "auto-mutilação" (Robjant, Robbins, e Senior, 2009) ou "pensamentos suicidas" (Robjant, Robbins, e Senior, 2009) não são incomuns (Robjant, Robbins, e Senior, 2009).

Mrs Glaucia Barbosa,
PACFA Reg. Provisional 25212 
MCouns, MQCA(Clinical)  
 
ABN: 19 476 932 954

References

Akhtar, S. (2011). Immigration and acculturation. Mourning, adaptation, and the next generation. Maryland,
UK: Jason Avonson.

Jamil, H., Nassar-McMillanb, S., Lambert, R., Wangd, Y., Ager, J., & Arnetz, B. (2010). Pre- and postdisplacement stressors and time of migration as related to self-rated health among Iraqi immigrants and refugees in south-east Michigan. Medicine, Conflict, and Survival, 26(3), 207- 222. doi:10.1080/13623699.2010.513655

Robjant, K., Robbins, I., & Senior, V. (2009). Psychological distress amongst immigration detainees: A crosssectional questionnaire study. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 48(3), 275-286.
doi:10.1348/014466508X397007




No comments:

Post a comment